Design & Manufacturing - Short Answer Questions from AMIE Exams

Gantry robots
A gantry robot consists of a manipulator mounted onto an overhead system that allows movement across a horizontal plane. 

Sensors
A sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and then provide a corresponding output. A sensor is a type of transducer: sensors may provide various types of output, but typically use electrical or optical signals. For example, a thermocouple generates a known voltage (the output) in response to its temperature (the environment).

Casting defects
A casting defect is an undesired irregularity in a metal casting process. Some defects can be tolerated while others can be repaired, otherwise, they must be eliminated. They are broken down into five main categories: gas porosity, shrinkage defects, mould material defects, pouring metal defects, and metallurgical defects.

Various methods of heat treatment of steels
Various types of heat treatment processes are: (a) Annealing (b) Normalizing (c) Hardening (d) Tempering (e) Refining

Hot tears and cold shut defects in casting
Hot tears: Hot tears are ragged irregular internal or external cracks occurring immediately after the metal has solidified. Hot tears occur on poorly designed castings having abrupt section changes or having no proper fillets or comer radii. Wrongly placed chills.
Cold shut: Cold shut is caused when two streams of metal that are too cold meet but do not fuse together.

HAZ
The Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) is an area of base metal that, while not melted, still has had its chemical properties altered by high-temperature heat. This phenomenon primarily occurs during welding or high-heat cutting. The high temperature from the welding process and eventual re-cooling causes this change from the weld interface to the end of the sensitizing temperature in the metal. These areas can be varying sizes and levels of severity. 

Creative, adaptive and variant design
  • Adaptive Design: In most design situations the designer's job is to make a slight modification of the existing design. These are called adaptive designs. This type of design needs no special knowledge or skill. E.g. converting mechanical watches into a new shape.
  • Variant Design: This type of design demands considerable scientific training and design ability, in order to modify the existing designs into a new idea, by adopting a new material or a different method of manufacture. In this case, though the designer starts from the existing designs, the final product may be entirely different from the original product. E.g. converting mechanical watches into quartz watches. Here a new technology is adopted.
  • Original (Creative) Design: Here the designer designs something that did not exist previously. Thus, it is also called new design or innovative design. For making original designs, a lot of research work, knowledge and creativity are essential. A company thinks of a new design when there is a new technology available or when there is enough market push. Since this type of design demands maximum creativity on the part of the designer, these are also called creative designs.

Various types of chip formation in a single point cutting operation
Various types of chip formation in a single point cutting operation: Discontinuous or segmental chip. Continuous Chip and Continuous chip with built-up edge

Reliability and maintainability (RAMS)
RAMS is an acronym for Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety.
  • Reliability is a product's or system's ability to perform a specific function and may be given as design reliability or operational reliability.
  • Availability is the ability of a system to be kept in a functioning state.
  • Maintainability is determined by the ease with which the product or system can be repaired or maintained.
  • Safety is the requirement not to harm people, the environment, or any other assets during a system's life cycle.

Concept of system
Concept of a system: A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole.
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