### Computing & Informatics - short answer questions from AMIE exams

How many RAM chips of size 256 KB are required to realize a 1 GB memory?
1 GB/256 KB = 2³⁰/2¹⁸ = 212 chips

List the basic difference between DOS and Unix.
DOS is a single-user operating system. UNIX is the multiuser operating system.

List two disadvantages of a database system as compared to a file-based system.
• A processor with a high speed of data processing and memory of large size is required to run the DBMS software.
• When a computer file-based system is replaced with a database system, the data stored into a data file must be converted to database files. It is a difficult and time-consuming method to convert data of data files into the database.
What information does a superblock of a file system contain?
The simplest definition of Superblock is that it's the metadata of the file system. Similar to how i-nodes stores metadata of files, Superblocks store metadata of the file system. As it stores critical information about the file system, preventing corruption of superblocks is of utmost importance.

Give the hexadecimal equivalent of the following binary number: (101101.010l)₂
Step 1: Binary to decimal
101101.01012

= 1∙25+ 0∙24+ 1∙23+ 1∙22+ 0∙21+ 1∙20+ 0∙2-1+ 1∙2-2+ 0∙2-3+ 1∙2-4

= 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 0.25 + 0 + 0.0625 = 45.312510

Step 2: Converting 45.312510 in Hexadecimal system
The whole part of a number is obtained by dividing on the basis of new

Happened: 45₁₀ = 2D₁₆

Happened:0.312510 = 0.516

Step 3: Add up together whole and fractional part here so:
2D16 + 0.516 = 2D.516

Result of converting:
101101.01012 = 2D.516

Show that a + (a.b) = a.
a = a.b = a(1 + b) = a(1) = a

Explain the following statement of C:
int(*X);
X is array of 20 pointers to integers.

What does MIME stand for and where is it used?
MIME is the acronym for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. It allows documents, other than plain text, to be attached to an email message.

Two PCs are located in adjacent rooms and a third PC is in a building 300 yards away. Explain how you could connect three PCs to create a single network.
Two pcs in the room can be connected using bus topology (LAN) and the third 300 yards away can be connected using WiFi or optical cable.

What is the output of the following C++ statement?
cout<<fixed<<left
(1) <<set precision<<setw(15)<<333.546372
Output will be 333.5
The setprecision is a manipulator function in C++ that is used to sets the decimal precision of floating-point values on output operations. This setprecision is the built-in function defined in <iomanip> header file in C++. The decimal number could contain an infinite length number which requires an infinite memory to store, but the decimal number is to be store in 4 or 8 bytes of memory. Hence some of the digits are lost and store only a significant number of digits. Therefore to keep the significant number of digits without loss of information the precision of a floating-point number can be defined.