Computing & Informatics - short answer questions from AMIE exams

To realize 8 Mbyte of memory, how many chips of size 512 Kbytes are required?
2¹⁶ = 512
Hence 16 chips

When an instruction is under execution, it should be in which register in the CPU?
Instruction Register (IR)

What would be the binary representation of the decimal value 0.25?
  • To convert the fractional part to binary, multiply the fractional part with 2 and take the one bit which appears before the decimal point.
  • Follow the same procedure after the decimal point (.) part until it becomes 1.0.
0.25 x 2 =0.50 //take 0 and move 0.50 to next step

0.50 x 2 =1.00 //take 1 and stop the process

Hence 0.25 (decimal) = (01) (binary)

What is the full form of TCP?
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport protocol that is used on top of IP to ensure the reliable transmission of packets. TCP includes mechanisms to solve many of the problems that arise from packet-based messaging, such as lost packets, out of order packets, duplicate packets, and corrupted packets.

What is the name of the parameter passing mechanism that is used to pass an array as a parameter during a function call?
Call by reference (through the protocol)

Why is it necessary to normalize the database tables?
Normalization is a technique for organizing data in a database. It is important that a database is normalized to minimize redundancy (duplicate data) and to ensure only related data is stored in each table. It also prevents any issues stemming from database modifications such as insertions, deletions, and updates.

What would be displayed when the following program is compiled and run?
Main() {
float a = 0.7;
if (a = = 0.7) print f (“Equal\n"); 
else print f (“Not Equal\n”);

Which protocol is involved when a mail client sends an e-mail to its mail server?
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).  SMTP is used to send and receive emails.

Why is redundancy a threat in a DBMS?
Disadvantages of data redundancy include an unnecessary increase in the size of databases, and the likelihood of data corruption being a direct result of redundancy. Other disadvantages include the likelihood of inconsistency of data as well as decreased efficiency of a database.

What is the full form of CSMA/CD?
Carrier Sense Multiple Access. This method was developed to decrease the chances of collisions when two or more stations start sending their signals over the data link layer. Carrier Sense multiple access requires that each station first check the state of the medium before sending. 

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