### Computing & Informatics - short answer questions from AMIE exams

State Moore's law.
Moore's law refers to an observation made by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965. He noticed that the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits had doubled every year since their invention. Moore's law predicts that this trend will continue into the foreseeable future.

What is the full form of ENIAC?
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. The Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) was the very first general-purpose electronic computer. It was designed primarily to calculate artillery firing tables to be used by the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory to help US troops during World War II.

What is a Baud rate?
• The baud rate of a data communications system is the number of symbols per second transferred.
• Baud rate is commonly used when discussing electronics that use serial communication. In the serial port context, "9600 baud" means that the serial port is capable of transferring a maximum of 9600 bits per second.
• At baud rates above 76,800, the cable length will need to be reduced. The higher the baud rate, the more sensitive the cable becomes to the quality of installation, due to how much of the wire is untwisted around each device.
What is a NULL pointer?
A null pointer is a special reserved value of a pointer. A pointer of any type has such a reserved value. Formally, each specific pointer type ( int * , char * etc.) has its own dedicated null-pointer value. Conceptually, when a pointer has that null value it is not pointing anywhere.

What is the similarity between a structure, union and enumeration?
All of them let you define new data types.

In C syntax, define a structure named Student. It should contain the name of the student (a string of 20 characters) and roll number (integer).
Struct student
{
char name [20]
int roll_no;
}

What is the maximum number of comparison operations required to search a given integer from an array of 1000 linearly ordered integers using binary search?
log₂(1000) = x
Hence 2x = 1000
By trial and error, x = 9.965 say 10.

In C syntax, write a code snippet to open a file named marks.dat and print out all the marks (integer) stored in it. Assume that it contains only marks (integer) and no other data.
fp = fopen (“marks.dat”, “r”);
while (f scanf (fp, “%d”, & data) = = 1)
{
printf (“\n%d”, data)
};

Name a popular LAN protocol.
Ethernet is the most widely used local area network protocol. Ethernet is the most widely used LAN technology, which is defined under IEEE standards 802.3. The reason behind its wide usability is Ethernet is easy to understand, implement, maintain and allows low-cost network implementation.

Write the truth table for a 1 -bit half adder.

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