Design & Manufacturing - short answer type questions from AMIE exams (Summer 2021)

Write short notes on the following (2 x 10)

Tool signature

Tool signature is the description of the cutting part of the tool. There are two systems for tool signature. (i) Machine reference system (or American Standard Association system) (ASA) (ii) Tool reference system (or Orthogonal rake system) (ORS)

Metal forming

It is a large set of manufacturing processes in which the material is deformed  plastically to take the shape of the die geometry. The tools used for such deformation  are called die, punch etc. depending on the type of process.


Ideally, a product is designed to be recycled, reused, remanufactured, composted or biologically degraded to reduce the demand for non-renewable resources and to keep the products out of the waste stream. 
Recyclability can be designed into products in terms of choice of materials and modularity. Some materials are more easily recyclable than others and facilities exist for returning them into production. For example, steel and aluminium are highly recyclable and are often recycled repeatedly.


A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electromechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry, and thus a type of embedded system.


CAD stands for Computer-Aided Design and CAM stands for Computer-Aided Manufacturing, both of which are used to make things. CAD/CAM software is used to design and manufacture prototypes, finished products, and production runs of products.

Modularity and safety

Modularity is the degree to which a system's components may be separated and recombined, often with the benefit of flexibility and variety in use.
It is a system property which measures the degree to which densely connected compartments within a system can be decoupled into separate communities or clusters which interact more among themselves rather than other communities.

Jig boring

Jig boring is used to accurately enlarge existing holes and make their diameters highly accurate. Jig boring is used for holes that need to have diameter and total runout controlled to a high degree. 


A sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and then provide a corresponding output. A sensor is a type of transducer: sensors may provide various types of output, but typically use electrical or optical signals. For example, a thermocouple generates a known voltage (the output) in response to its temperature (the environment).


All automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires on the floor or uses vision, magnets, or lasers for navigation. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or warehouse. 

Laser welding

Laser welding is a process used to join together metals or thermoplastics using a laser beam to form a weld. Being such a concentrated heat source, in thin materials laser welding can be carried out at high welding speeds of metres per minute, and in thicker materials can produce narrow, deep welds between square-edged parts.

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