Answer the following in brief.
Differentiate between actual parameters and formal parameters.
The Parameters which are sent from main function to the subdivided function are called as Actual Parameters, and the parameters which are declared in the subdivided function end are called as Formal Parameters.
What is pre-processor?
A software program that processes the source file before sending it to actual compilation is called a preprocessor.
Differentiate between call by value and call by reference.
- A Call by value method basically copies the data/value in any argument to a formal parameter within the particular function. Hence, any updates or changes made to the main function’s parameter do not affect the overall argument in any way.
- The Call by reference method actually copies the address of an argument within a function to the formal parameter. The changes to formal parameters are reflected onto the actual parameters.
Explain compiler and cross-compiler.
- A compiler is a program that translates a source program written in some high-level programming language (such as Java) into machine code.
- A cross-compiler is a compiler that may run on one machine and produce output target code for another machine. This process of generating a compiler for a new machine is called a cross-compiler. For example, building windows software on a Linux computer.
What is virtual memory, and why is it necessary?
- Virtual memory is the use of secondary storage as additional primary memory.
- There are times when the amount of RAM needed to hold all running programs and data is greater than the amount of RAM available to the computer. When this happens, part of the computer's secondary storage, such as the hard disk, can be used to store data temporarily.
Define access time and seek time of a hard disk.
- The seek time of a hard disk measures the amount of time required for the read/write heads to move between tracks over the surfaces of the platters.
- The access time is the average time taken for a disk drive to provide the first byte of data
Why is a cache memory needed?
A cache is a software or hardware used to temporarily store information, often data, in a computer system.
Write the boolean expression and truth table for EX-NOR gate.
What are two important advantages of gray codes?
- Gray code is the arrangement of a binary number system such that each incremental value can only differ by one bit.
- It is best for error minimization in conversion of analog to digital signals.
- It is best for minimizing a logic circuit
Why is it necessary to normalize the database tables?
Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database. It eliminates redundant data from the database.
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